Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions in Indonesia: Updates, Issues and Options
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are the necessary non-binding action plans on climate change targeted by each country as their long-term goals on reducing emissions and combating climate change impacts. NDCs are intended to be dynamic; countries regularly update them and advance the level of ambition and science and implementation experience required to meet the long-term temperature goal, in line with the Paris Agreement.
While NDCs form a critical piece towards climate action and pathways to a net-zero economy, it is essential to identify any current gaps and the future needs at the country level, to implement these actions effectively. Initiatives such as policy gaps and needs analysis interlinking with the updated NDC review process present opportunities for synergies in addressing these gaps and needs, through the alignment of critical processes such as the National Adaptation Plans, Sustainable Development Goals, and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
Against this backdrop, the Australian government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) has commissioned Curtin University Australia and the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) to develop a framework for facilitating NDCs in the Indo-Pacific countries. In this connection, ADPC organized a workshop to discuss the current status of NDCs, key challenges, and capacity needs to successfully implement the NDCs over the next five years. This would eventually lead to developing a framework for how Australia can support countries in the Indo-Pacific region, in terms of implementing their respective NDCs.
The overall objective of the workshop is to understand the current status of country’s nationally determined contributions (NDCs), impact of climate change on key economic sectors, mitigation and adaptation targets, and challenges faced by Indonesia in implementation of NDCs.
The Workshop was held in:
Date: 31 May 2022
Venue: Hybrid (Zoom) with 43 participant
Onsite: Floating Room (Ruang Apung), Central Library (Crystal of Knowledge Building), Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
Duration: 8:30 – 14:00
Co-organized by: ADPC, Research Centre for Climate Change- Universitas Indonesia and Curtin University with financial support from Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia
The workshop started with welcome remarks by Dr. Dede Djuhana, Dean of FMIPA Universitas Indonesia that mentioned on different partnerships and collaboration with global issues relevant to Indonesia, such as climate change issue working together with industries to commit in Green Summit collaboration and collaboration with JICA on water to energy solutions as well as multiple other projects. He thanked everyone for their participation and opportunity for the workshop.
The second welcome remarks by Marsha Sudar, Second Secretary (Economics), Australian Embassy, Jakarta that mentioned the importance of cooperation with Indonesia and informed on study opportunities for Indonesian participants to share experiences with Australia at research institutions, with short courses focusing on climate finance, renewable energy, mainstreaming DRM and other international and sub-national planning courses. She looked forward to a fruitful discussion and framework on NDC implementation.
The next is opening remarks by Professor Linley Lord, Pro Vice-Chancellor and President, Curtin University (CU), Singapore that spoke briefly on the nationally determined contributions as essential in the long-term goals of reducing emissions and addressing the impacts of climate change. NDCs will form a critical component of policies and actions towards a net zero economy. She also mentioned today’s workshop being a part of series of workshop in Indo-Pacific region commissioned by Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade with collaboration with different institutions.
And last opening remarks by Professor Jatna Supriatna, Research Centre for Climate Change, Universitas Indonesia (RCCC-UI) that spoke on the collaboration on discussion on NDC focusing on adaptation. He also mentioned it being a part of series of workshops in Asia. He explained about the establishment of Research Centre for Climate Change endorse by different ministries and think tanks about 11 years back on dealing with climate change issues. He emphasized that NDC is one of the significantly important commitments on climate change research. The NDC states 29% emission reduction and with the assistance of international support, the country aims to reduce to 41% which is a huge commitment with collaboration and partnership with all sectors of government, private and public sectors, and international assistance. The university has been working with global partnership on gaps and issues, to bring solutions to make a difference.
The next session of workshop is the first speaker from Ms. Sri Tantri Arundhati, Director of Climate Change Adaptation, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (KLHK) (Ministry of Environment and Forestry) briefly spoke on Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) as a commitment of a country on climate change. Out of the five sectors (energy, forestry, waste, IPPU and agriculture) for emission reduction targets, the dominant ones are forestry and energy. Ms. Arundhati elaborated on the eight strategies to implement the roadmap of NDCs as 1) Policy instruments for climate change adaptation and disaster risk; 2) Integration into development planning and financial mechanisms; 3) Increasing climate literacy on vulnerability and risk; 4) Landscape-based approach for comprehensive understanding; 5) Strengthening local capacity on best practices; 6) Improved knowledge management; 7) Stakeholder participation; and 8) Application of adaptive technology. Lastly, she highlighted efforts of KLHK on a bottom-up climate change action through the Climate Village Program (Proklim).
The second speaker is Ir. Udrekh SE, Director of Disaster Risk Mapping and Evaluation, National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) that highlighted the disasters in Indonesia with the total economic loss trend of the country from 2001-2020 to be increasing. He particularly focused on the supporting regulations of the country and how BNPB has targeted the NDC targets in its action plans and implementation in three target areas namely economic resilience, social and life resilience and ecosystem and landscape resilience. He reiterated the importance of increasing regional strength for mitigation activities and agriculture. Lastly, in conclusion and recommendations, he focused on the convergence of DRR-Climate Change Adaptation to streamline access to data and information, provision of guidelines and prioritization and budget allocation for better implementing of regulations.
The third speaker is Professor Dr. Budi Haryanto, RCCC-UI that briefly explained brief background and importance of incorporating health in national climate commitments. He focused on the rate of migration and its significant impacts on urban poor living in slums, the increased vulnerability from the impacts of climate change and natural hazards, which is accelerated with overcrowded living conditions, lack of adequate infrastructure and services, unsafe housing, inadequate nutrition, and poor health. He also mentioned about Government of Indonesia (GOI), through its Bappenas mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation on four sectors: sea and coastal (under Ministry of Environment), water (under Ministry of Public Works, agriculture (under Ministry of Agriculture), and health (under ministry of Health without any single cell responsible). Increase in budget allocation and communication should be increased to program implementation on reducing communicable diseases as well as non-communicable diseases which have tended to increase year by year.
The Fourth speaker is Dr. Alin Halimatussadiah, LPEM UI that mentioned that the global trends of climate change have strengthened from Nationally Determined Contributions to country’s preparing the Long-Term Emissions Strategy with the intention to achieve net zero emissions. She spoke about the economic consideration in decarbonization as resources efficiency and environmental protection. Some key issues to focus for decarbonization are sector/product prioritization with statistics for monitoring, tradeoff between local development and GDP for other intangible benefits, financing, fiscal reform, phasing just transition and statistics. The problem of financing is not the lack of funds but the cost of funding which is quite high and therefore, low-cost investments is required to reduce the cost. She added that promotion of narrative on adaptation is important and should be stronger for the country.
The Fifth speaker is Professor Dr. Suratman, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada that provided an overview of the global climate change trends narrowing it to the country level. He emphasized on that the scientific approach for five agenda on climate change action program for nation action requires collaboration in Penta Helix, partnership action program for climate change and education, research and community services. Lastly, he showcased numerous mitigation and adaptation innovative technologies on sustainable agriculture, solar use, waste management, early warning system, eco-bricks and electric vehicles.
The sixth speaker is Dr. Joko Pamungkas, Vice Coordinator, Indonesia One Health University Network (INDOHUN) that mentioned on the strong relations or influence between climate change and disease emergency and an urgent need to pair viral surveillance and discovery efforts with biodiversity surveys, tracking species range shift, especially in tropical regions that harbor the most species and are experiencing rapid warming. He emphasized on the approach of one health to climate change to build evidence based on country specific threats and prioritize emerging zoonotic diseases to develop targeted climate health adaptation and research agenda to study the impacts of climate change on health, reducing the risk and increasing resilience in the era of Covid-19.
The last speaker is from Dr. Habib Rahman, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, Curtin University that spoke briefly on the vision behind the project and developing of a public policy framework for the Australian government. And Mr. Israel Jegillos, Senior Project Manager, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center that briefly highlighted on the financing aspect of climate emission reduction. He mentioned the importance of proper planning to find potential sources of financing.
The following recommendations were put forth during the workshop.
- The method and tools for implementation of NDC should be focused to achieve the targets set by the country. An implementation strategy should be developed to achieve the commitments.
- Collaboration is important to achieve the target by 2030 on properties, funding and many other aspects for public, private, partnerships to combat climate change.
- Disaster resilience of the community is key to combat climate crisis. The dilemma on ecosystem protection and need of livelihood and welfare should be balanced with shift to renewable energy to protect the forest and ecosystem and well as work on the development of the country.
- Three entry points to support the implementation of NDCs- disaster resilience, health and nutrition, and viable local economy.
- The key to addressing climate crisis and achieving NDC is to embrace the local wisdom, tradition and strength of the local community on adapting to climate change as a part of research, development and innovation.
- Partnerships on research and development should be emphasized with universities, local government and young professionals to address the research and development needs of the ground and scale up potential synergies between national and local governments.